This purpose of this investigation is to compare the perceptions of competitive advantage through cost leadership and differentiation with sustainable practices of wineries from the USA, Italy, and Spain. Data are collected via self-report web-based surveys in California, Tuscany, and Catalonia in 2010-2011 during a severe economic downturn in the wine industry. Of the 260 respondents among the three country samples, over 75 percent are family-owned and family-managed. Respondents indicate who has implemented a clear business case for an Environmental Management System (EMS) and who has not. Benefits and challenges of implementing sustainability practices are also addressed. A comparable percentage of respondents across the three countries indicated a “clear business case for EMS”. Wineries in all three countries perceive that they have competitive advantage through implementation of EMS and commitment to sustainable practices. Top perceived benefits for respondents from the USA and Italy are focused on cost reduction strategies, while top perceived benefits for Spanish respondents are focused on differentiation strategies. Activities that create competitive advantages for wine businesses in different countries are understudied; this research bridges that gap.